Jack London's novel The Iron Heel was published in 1908.
It tells the story of the rise of a fascist, oligarch tyranny in the United States.
The novel covers the rise of the oligarchy during the years 1912 to 1932.
The Oligarchy maintains power for three centuries.
The oligarchs are the robber barons who bankrupt most small to mid-sized business.
In the novel:
This Oligarchy maintains power through the military, mercenaries and people who have been 'bought', such as some Trade Union leaders.
The oligarchs control the media.
They build up patriotic militias.
They use "agent provocateurs" and false-flag operations to discredit their enemies.
The Iron Heel influenced Orwell's novel Nineteen Eighty-Four.
Orwell said that Jack London made "a very remarkable prophecy of the rise of Fascism."